Ottoman Phase

The excavated area in HTP01 is approximately 1475 m2 (Fifty-nine 5 x 5 m trenches have been opened so far). The uppermost cover of the complete mound, and thus HTP01, is a thin layer of dusty, dark brown soil which includes lots of irregular small-sized grey stones, some ceramics, mostly Ottoman green glazed, some tiles, rarely coins and vegetation. Immediately under this soil (15-20 cm) upper parts of wall foundations appear. These wall foundations (56-99 cm wide) belong to the Ottoman village settlement. The foundations are made of one to two layers of the grey stones that frequently appear in the top soil. At few places, where a more vigorous leveling was necessary, the foundations were built as tall as about 1m or 4 rows.

A similar soil, possibly formed by similar processes post-abandonment continues until the floor level of the spaces defined by the foundations. The floors are beaten earth. Material in situ is rare, a few broken yet in-situ pots were recovered. Along the foundations, especially at the corners and in the center of the room when the room is large, are spolia re-used as bases for wooden posts supporting most probably roofs rather than a second floor. It is difficult to discern the plan of individual units however, the presence of 4 large buildings may be suggested (Units 1-4). Two units are in the south (Units 1-2) while the other two are in the north of the excavated area (Unit 3-4). Entrance into rooms are recognized in some of the units.

The archaeological contexts suggest that the Ottoman village was abandoned in the 18th century (there is no reference to buildings on the hill in 19th century travellers either). The buildings were cleared off the daily objects and personal belongings and even possibly the wood used in constructions. The superstructure of the houses must have been adobe, with wooden posts holding possibly adobe and straw roofs. These must have severely disintegrated leaving almost no trace behind.

The earliest tahrir defter (taxation surveys) from the area dates to 1455.[1] On this document, the province named Komanat has 12 villages. In these 12 villages, there were 261 muslim and 91 non-muslim households and 44 unmarried male. The Komanat village itself was the administrative center of this district and there were 38 muslim, 44 non-muslim households and 22 unmarried male. According to these numbers, the population in the Komanat village was around 391 people and in the nahiye of Komanat in total 1628. We are unsure if Komana continued to have this kind of a central position 300 years later however, we may suggest that at some point the hill, Hamamtepe, was once more occupied between the abandonment after 14th century and the 19th century. 18th century-19th century court records indicate that Komanat was still a district of Tokat at such a late date.
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