Roman Phase

Komana Pontica remained rather powerful and partially autonomous (as much as it was under the Hellenistic kings) under the Roman rule. Romans identified Ma as Bellona and then Virtus and were mostly attracted to the exotic features of the cult such as a state of trans, fortune-telling and self injury. The cult was introduced to Rome during the campaigns of Sulla against Mithradates VI and shared a temple with Mars.
Pontus was re-organized under Pompey so that it could be administered according to the Roman standards of provincial administration.

Roman Komana is not very well understood in terms of the settlement plan and architecture. Similarly archaeological materials such as pottery are also scarce compared to the Medieval period finds. Excavations below the churches provided contexts with both Pontic sigillata and imported terra sigillata. Cooking and storage wares are present in addition to fine ware. Still the ceramic data attests to an extensive Early Roman occupation at the site.

A fragmentary statue dated to the Roman period was discovered in 2015 at Komana which belonged to a benefactor, a statue set up by the city "in the midst of his public works", this indicates that Komana had indeed become a polis with a boule, a ruling local elite entangled in the Roman ways of life by the 2nd century AD.

A second clue to a more Greco-Roman urban life is the Euprepes inscription. A funerary stele celebrating the achievements of a provocator Euprepes dating to the 2nd– 3rd centuries was found in the 11-12th century church. Euprepes is a provocator, a type of a gladiator primarily fighting against animals but also later with one another. Gladiators were often captured foreigners or slaves but sometimes freed men often owned by wealthy families or high-priests who also sponsored the events. His dedication is an indication that at Komana there was possibly gladiatorial training school and/or gladiatorial games were held. Presence of wealthy families /priests may also be assumed.

A hexagonal water basin at Komana was discovered on the fertile plains to the northwest of the Gözova/Omala valley, where the terrain slopes upwards in terraces towards the west. The hexagonal basin at Komana is an unusual example of monumental architecture which survived without the related buildings in its vicinity but still provided important information on Roman ways of life.
copyright 2021 karp